Environment and Environmental Hygiene (Water) Questionbank 2

PREPARED BY:
Dr. Sonu S. Nair
MVSc scholar,
Division of Bacteriology and Mycology
IVRI, Izatnagar

 

FILL IN THE BLANKS

  1. The candle of Pasteur Chamberland filter is made of _______________ and that of Berkefeld filter is made of _______________
    ANS: porcelain , kieselgurh (infusrial earth)
  2. The bactericidal action of Ktadyn filter is due to the _______________ ation of silver ions
    ANS: oligodynamic
  3. The UV rays disinfection of water involves the exposure of a fim of water about _______________ mm thick.
    ANS: 120
  4. The most effective and cheapest way of disinfecting wells is by _______________ and should not use _______________
    ANS: bleaching powder, potassium permanganate
  5. Chlorine demand of well water can be estimated by using _______________
    ANS: Horrock’s apparatus
  6. The double pot method of chlorination is a method devised by _______________
    ANS: National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur
  7. Water with turbidity of more than _______________ nephlometric turbidity units (NTU) is usually noticeable to the naked eyes
    ANS: 4
  8. The WHO (2011) guideline value for colour of drinking water is _______________
    ANS: 15 true colour units ( TCU)
  9. The standard prescribed level for chloride in drinking water is …………….. mg/L and maximum permissible level is _______________ mg/L
    ANS: 200, 600
  10. Levels of ammonia in ground and surface water is _______________ mg/L and that in anaerobic ground water is _______________ mg/L
    ANS: 0.2 , 3
  11. Acceptable pH of drinking water is between _______________
    ANS: 6.5 and 8.5
  12. The taste and odour threshold of hydrogen sulphide in water are estimated to be between _______________
    ANS: 0.05-0.1 mg/L
  13. Water with a total dissolved solids (TDS) below _______________ mg/L is usually acceptable and that with a TDS level below _______________ mg/L is considered to be good
    ANS: 1000, 600
  14. The prsence of faecal _______________ indicate recent faecal pollution of water
    ANS: Streptococci
  15. Disinfection with 0.5mg/L of free chlorine residual after contact period of _______________ minutes at a pH of _______________ is sufficient to inactivate virus
    ANS: 30, 8
  16. Cadmium accumulates primarily in the _______________
    ANS: kidney
  17. _______________ is the main target organ for inorganic mercury and that for methyl mercury is ______________
    ANS: kidney, central nervous system
  18. The upper limit of cocentration of carbon tetrachloride in water is _______________
    ANS: 2 microgram/L
  19. The upper limit of concentration of DDT in water is _______________
    ANS: 2 microgram/L
  20. High levels of fluoride causes _______________ of dental enamel
    ANS: mottling
  21. High nitrate content of water is associated with _______________
    ANS: methaemoglobinemia
  22. _______________ is an estimate of the amount of a substance in food or drinking water that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk
    ANS: tolerable daily intake (TDI)
  23. _______________ is the highest dose or concentration of a chemical in a single study, found by experiment that causes no detectable adverse health effect
    ANS: NOAEL ( no-observed-adverse-effect level)
  24. _______________ is the lowest observed dose or concentration of a substance at which there is detectable adverse health effect
    ANS: LOAEL (lowest-observed-adverse-effect level)
  25. The effects of radiation exposure are called_______________ if the become manifest in the exposed individual, and _______________ if they affect the descendants.
    ANS: somatic, hereditary
  26. _______________is the most important delayed somatic effect of radiation
    ANS: Malignant disease
  27. The proposded guide line value for gross alpha activity is _______________
    ANS: 0.5 Bq/L
  28. The proposed guide line value for gross beta activity is _______________
    ANS: 1 Bq/L
  29. _______________test is based on estimating the most probable number (MPN) of coliform organisms in 100ml of water
    ANS: Mutiple tube method
  30. Multiple tube method is carried out using _______________broth with _______________as indicator
    ANS: McConkey’s Lactose Bile Salt Broth, Bromocresol purpleMut
  31. Multiple tube method will give the result as _______________
    ANS: Presumptive coliform count
  32. For confirmation of the coliform _______________broth is used
    ANS: Brilliant green bile broth
  33. For confirmation of the presence of coliform organisms the broths are incubated at _______________degree and for E coli at _______________degree
    ANS: 37, 44
  34. In membrane filtration technique for testing the presence of coliform organisms _______________membranes are used
    ANS: cellulose ester
  35. Colony counts on nutrient agar at _______________degree and _______________degree are used in bacteriological examination of water
    ANS: 37, 22
  36. The recommended plate count for estimating the bacterial purity of disinfected water is _______________after 2 days at 37 degee and _______________after 3 days at 22 degree.
    ANS: 0, 20
  37. _______________organisms are an index of pollution.
    ANS: Plankton
  38. _______________is dedfined as the soap destroying power of water.
    ANS: Hardness
  39. The hardness in water is caused mainly by the bicarbonates and sulphates of _______________and _______________
    ANS: Calcium, Magnesium
  40. _______________hardness is due to the presence of calcium and magnesium bicarbonates
    ANS: Temporary
  41. _______________hardness is due to the prsence of calcioum and magnesium sulphates, chlorides and nitrates
    ANS: Permanent
  42. One milli-equivalents per ltre of hardness producing ion is equal to _______________mg/L of CaCO3
    ANS: 50
  43. Level of hardness in soft water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: < 50
  44. Level of hardness of moderately hard water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 50-150
  45. Level of hardness in hard water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 150-300
  46. Level of hardness in very hard water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: > 300
  47. Boiling, addition of lime , addition of sodium carbonate and permutit process are methods to remove _______________hardness
    ANS: temporary
  48. The methods to remove permanent hardness are _______________and _______________
    ANS: addition of sodium carbonate, base exchange process
  49. In Clark’s method of softening water _______________is used
    ANS: quick lime
  50. _______________is a complex compound of sodium, aluminium and silica used in permutit process
    ANS: Sodium permutit
  51. _______________and _______________methods removes both temporary and permanent hardness.
    ANS: Addition of sodium carbonate, Permutit process
  52. _______________has the property of exchanging sodium cation for the calcium and magnesium ions in the water
    ANS: Sodium permutit
  53. Epidermophyton and Trichophyton species produce _______________
    ANS: Athlete,s foot
  54. _______________virus is the inciting agent of plantar warts
    ANS: Papilloma
  55. Water of zero hardness has _______________action
    ANS: corrosive
  56. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Arsenic in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 0.01
  57. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Antimony in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 0.02
  58. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Cadmium in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 0.003
  59. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Fluoride in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 1.5
  60. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Lead in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 0.01
  61. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Mangenese in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 0.4
  62. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Mercury (total) in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 0.006
  63. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Nitrate in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 50
  64. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Nitrite in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 3
  65. The recommended maximum limit of concentration of Selenium in drinking water is _______________mg/L
    ANS: 0.04

REFERENCE:
PARK’S TEXTBOOK OF PREVENTIVE AND SOCIAL MEDICINE

 

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