PGE & T section,
1. Muscle fibers of meat animals with diameters of 50 microns contains —– no. of Myofibrils
2. The unit of myofibril between two adjacent Z discs is called —–
3.A typical mammalian muscle at rest has a sarcomere length of ——-
4. Actin molecule has a ——— shape
5. Myosin constitutes approx ——–% of myofibrillar proteins
6. ——— is the most abundant protein in animal body
7. ——— is the most abundant amino acid of collagen
8. Glycine constitute about —–% of amino acids of collagen
9. ———— is the structural unit of collagen fibril
10. The cervical ligament of neck is made of ——–fibers
11. ——— is the amino acid present in the greatest quantity in elastin
12. ——– & ——— are two unique amino acids present in elastin
13. The color of brown fat is due to high content of ——— in mitochondria
14. A primary muscle contains approx —— number of muscle fibers
15. Intramuscular fat is called ———- of meat
16. Intermuscular fat is also called ——— fat
17. The element which constitutes maximum % of animal body weight is——–
18. ———– is the most abundant fatty acid in animal body
19. The most abundant carbohydrate in muscles———–
20. Average protein percentage of mammalian skeletal muscles—–
21. A genetic condition of cattle causing unusually thick bulging muscles.
22. Excessive fat infiltration in muscle fibers is called——–
23. An action potential enters the interior of a muscle fibers along ———
24.Only about ——–% of total blood volume can be removed via exsanguination.
25. The range of ultimate pH of meat is ——–
26. The period of time during which the muscle is extensible and elastic is called—phase of rigor mortis.
27. ATP complexed with ——–is required for a muscle to maintain a relaxed state
28. The decrease in tension with time is described as ——- of rigor mortis.
29. Holding carcass at refrigeration temperature after initial chilling is called——–in US &—–in other countries
30. In——- condition of meat, there is lowered processing yield, increased cooking loss and reduced juiciness.
31. Cold shortening develops when muscle is chilled below ——–before onset of rigor mortis.
32. Thaw rigor shortening is approx. ——- % of original length of muscles.
33.Marked shortening and early onset of rigor induced by maintaining muscles at high temp is called——-
34. Lipid oxidation in muscles is measured as —–values.
35. Loss of weight during storage of meat is called ————
36. Lack of space for water molecules within protein structures is known as ——-effects.
37. In well bled muscles, Myoglobin constitutes ——% of the total pigments.
38. The typical color of meat from pork is ——-
39. The bright red color development of meat is due to oxymyoglobin is called
40. Oxidized myoglobin is called——
41. The bright pink color characteristic of cured meat is due to ———
42. The amount of nitrite permitted in finished products by US meat inspection regulation is —-ppm
43. The sodium salts of ——- or ——– acids are most widely used cure accelerators.
44. The greening of cured meat pigment by excessive use of nitrites———–
45. Large fat particles coalesce at the end of the sausages to form ——-
46. —–flavor develops due to lipid oxidation in pre-cooked frozen meat.
47. The heat resistance of microrganisms is usually expressed as ———
48. To stabilize meat products, a radiation dosage of —– megarads is used.
49, Loss of tenderness occuring in the first few hours postmortem is called——–toughning.
50. Cooked testicle of lambs, calves and turkeys are commonly called ——
3. 2.5 microns
12. Desmosine and Isodesmosine
14. 20 to 40
18. Oleic acid
29. Aging , conditioning
31. 15-16 degrees
33. Heat Rigor
34. Thiobarbituric Acid
38. Grayish Pink
41. Nitrosyl Haemochromogen
43. Ascorbic or Erythorbic
44. Nitrite Burn
45. Fat Caps
46. Warmed Over
47.Thermal death time
50. Mountain Oysters