Veterinary Science Refresher -1


Dr. Mahesh. M (Ph.D. Scholar, Division of Avian Diseases)
Dr. Ajith. P (M.V.Sc. Scholar, Division of Surgery)
Indian Veterinary Research Institute,
Izatnagar, Bareilly;

Bacterial disease in which Pasteur’s vaccine used- Anthrax
‘Para anthrax’ in pigs caused by- Cl. septicum
Foot rot in sheep is caused by – Bacterioides nodosus
Duck Plague is the synonym for –Duck Viral Enteritis
The indistinct margins of a radiograph due to a large focal spot of X-ray beam -penumbra.
The optimum temperature of developing and fixing solutions in radiography is -68F
Avian influenza virus has 8 gene segments
M. leprae can be cultivated in vivo only in- Armadillo
State of unresponsiveness towards an antigen is – Anergy
The cholinergic drug that cannot be hydrolyzed by AchE is -carbachol
The penetrating power of X-ray beam depends on – kvp
Anaesthesia produced by combination of drugs is termed as-Balanced anaesthesia
Antigen-Antibody complexes present in dentrites of Dentritic cells- Iccosomes
BCG is an attenuated form of – Mycobacterium bovis
Vitamin C is used as an antidote to —Nitrate—–poisoning
Oseltamivir is the drug of choice against- Bird flu in humans
The species of animal in which Ivermectin crosses the BBB- Equines
The only anaesthetic agent known to be carcinogenic- fluoroxene
The drugs contraindicated in parakeets & cats respectively are- procaine & morphine
The species most sensitive to the ill-effects of xylazine – cattle
A pantropic virus that commonly affects Canines- Canine distemper virus
Symplasma stage in submucosa is seen in- Johne’s Disease

Oestrogenic mycotoxin causing reproductive disorders in swine is- Zearalenone
‘Blue eye’ or Rubarth’s Disease is the synonym for- Infectious Canine Hepatitis
Which is the most potent opiate analgesic? carfentanil
Name a benzodiazepine antagonist- flumazenil
Ketamine is contraindicated in head injuries as it reduces -Intra cranial pressure
The subtype of Avian flu virus causing human casualties around the world- H5N1
Mad cow disease is caused by- Prions
Cold enrichment procedure is done for the isolation of – Listeria
‘J’ chain is present in immunoglobulins- IgA and IgM
In the body, Chloral hydrate is converted to – tricholoroethanol
Name one anaesthetic agent which is steroid in nature- Althesin
Dose of Anthrax vaccine- 1ml s/c
Anaphylatoxins are- C3a and C5a
The specific antidote of Morphine is- Nalorphine
Dunkop (pulmonary) and Dikkop (cardiac) are two forms of – African Horse Sickness
‘Wire loop’ lesions in the glomerular basement membrane seen in- SLE
The drug used to stabilize mast cells- Cromolyn sodium
Hyaluronidase– enzyme used with local anaesthetics to promote its diffusion and absorption
Milbemycin oxime is obtained from-Streptomyces hygroscopicus
Name a suture material that glows in darkness easy to handle in poor light- Flurofil
Cardinal Signs of Inflammation was propounded by- Cornelius Celsus
FMD virus multiplies in the ——Str.spinosum——— layer of epidermis
Father of Immunology is- Edward Jenner
Lamsiekte in cattle and sheep is caused by – Cl.botulinum type D.
Vaccine strain of B.anthracis is – Aviurlent and Non capsulated
Monsell’s suture technique is used in – Enteroanastomosis
Ethylene oxide is a gaseous agent used for sterilization kills microorganisms by-alkylation..
VitC is necessary for hydroxylation of proline & lysine in synthesis of -collagen
‘Bomb burst’ or ‘Umbrella like’ colonies are characteristic of – Listeria
Influenza virus is typed based on Matrix and Nucleocapsid antigen
The conversion of DHFA to THFA is blocked by- Trimethoprim
Examples of pencillinase resistant pencillins- Methicillin and Cloxacillin
First immunoglobulin to be synthesized in Neonates- IgM.
‘Abortion storms’ in sheep is caused by- Campylobacter foetus
Vaccine strain used for prophylaxis of IBD infection-Georgia
Which is the only benzimidazole drug that wont inhibit Fumarate reductase- mebendazole
Name an  anthelminthic which was previously used to treat human gout- piperazine
The experimental animal used for FMD research is – Guinea pig
The no: of Capsomers in Adenoviruses is- 252
The source of Vero cell line is – African Green Monkey (Kidney)
Heat resistant ability of sporulated bacterium is due to the compound-Ca dipicholinate
The generation of monoclonal antibodies involves-Salvage pathway
Antibiotic which can also function as an anthelminthic agent is- Hygromycin B
Ivermectin toxicity can be reversed by using – Picrotoxin
Cucurbitin, an active principle in Pumpkin seed is used for the treatment for-Cestodiasis
Name a live vaccine previously used against rabies- Flury’s LEP & HEP


Periarticular lymphoid sheath (PALS) is populated by T lymphocytes are seen in-Spleen
Habel’s testing (mouse test) is done for the diagnostic assessment of- Rabies
Most immunogenic viral polypeptide of FMD virus is – VP1
Rabbits show genetic tolerance towards- Atropine
The diuretic that cannot be given along with aminoglycoside antibiotics- Furosemide
The antibiotic Gentamicin is obtained from- Micromonosporum purpureum
Ochratoxin primarily causing renal impairment is produced by- Aspergillus ochraceus
Name the smallest animal virus- Porcine circovirus (17-20nm)., FMDV is of 28-30nm size.
Pyometra in bitches is caused by –E.coli
Strawberry foot rot is caused by-Dermatophilus congolensis
Drug of choice for mycoplasmosis- Tylosin
‘Tennis racket’ shaped spores are present in- Cl. chauvoei
Psittacosis or Ornithosis in birds is caused by- Chlamydophila psittaci
The proton pump inhibitor used to treat Zollinger-Ellison syndrome-Omeprazole
Rabies virus (bullet shaped) belongs to the genus- Lyssa virus
‘Bull Nose’ in pigs is caused by- Fusobacterium necrophorus
DNA virus that codes for reverse transcriptase enzyme- Hepadna virus
Chronic Respiratory Disease in birds is caused by – Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Immediate precursor of all sex steroids- Pregnenalone
In avian tuberculosis the lesion are confined to – GI tract
Name a commonly used AchE reactivator- Pralidoxime.
Piperonyl butoxide is used as a synergist along with -Pyrethroids
HVT is the vaccine strain used against- Marek’s Disease
In B.abortus, the ratio between LPS antigens A and M is – 20:1
Kume and Page Scheme is used for the classification of- Haemophilus
‘Reverse Genetics’ is nowadays used for the production of vaccine strains of – Avian flu virus
Drug of choice against Theileriosis is -Buparvaquone
With H&E staining the calcified tissue appears -Blue
The toxic level of Aflatoxin in ducklings is- 0.03ppm
Summer Mastitis in cattle is caused by -C. pyogenes
Heart Water disease is caused by- Cowdria ruminantium
EMJH medium is commonly used for the cultivation of -Leptospira
Hoti’s test is used for detecting -Str. agalactiae mastitis
Infectious Bulbar Paralysis is the synonym for- Psuedorabies
Sulphonamides are metabolized by acetylation in ruminants and glucuronidation in canines.
Scythe shaped spleen is seen in -Horses
The most important symptom of anthrax in dogs is -Gastroenteritis.
Braxy in sheep is caused by -Cl. septicum.
The microbes that have the ability to survive pasteurization temp is -Listeria and Coxiella
Techoic acid is present in the cell wall of – Gram + bacteria
Route of inoculation in chicken embryos is intravenous for Blue tongue virus
‘Darling disease’ is caused by – Histoplasma
New Jersey, Indiana and Trinidad are strains of – Vesicular stomatitis virus
Diene staining is used for – Mycoplasma
Aspergillus flavus in SDA produces-Yellowish green colonies
Cork screw motility is shown by -Campylobacter
Turkey coryza which is highly contagious is caused by – Bordetella avium
Castanida and Machiavello staining are employed for detecting- Chlamydia
The antibodies used against the Rh antigen to prevent Erythroblastosis foetalis- Rhogam
The immunoglobulin known as ‘Reagin’- IgE
Macrophages present in Kidney are known as- Mesangial cells
Interleukin that suppresses the immune response is – IL-10
Etiological agent of silage disease is – Listeria.
Smallest living organism of individual existence- Mycoplasma
Bacillus anthracis have medusa head like colonies in -Nutrient agar
Clostridium perfringens type A in animals causes- Gas gangrene
The class of immunoglobulin that first appears in primary immune response- IgM
Polypeptide chain called secretory component is present in- IgA
Docking in dogs can predispose to a conditon called- Perineal Hernia
Hoflund’s syndrome is the synonym for- Vagal indigestion
Vitamin K dependent clotting factors are- 2,7,9 and 10.
Limber neck in poultry is caused by-  Clostridium botulinum type C
The amino acid tryptophan act as growth promoter for the microbe- Erysepelothrix
The most potent Aflatoxin is-  B1
The cytolytic product of CTL cells that forms transmembrane pores in target cells- Perforins
Autoimmune disease in which Ig’s are formed against Ach receptors- Myasthenia gravis
World’s first veterinary school in – 1762, Lyons, Paris
The dog breed that has genetic predisposition for skin tumor- Boxer
Gavard’s muscle is the synonym of -Int.obl. muscle layer of stomach.
Ventral bending (concave) of the spinal column is called- Lordosis
A and M antigens are absent in- B.canis & B.ovis
Foothill abortion / BEA in cattle is caused by- Chlamydophila psittaci
The antibacterial system naturally present in milk is- Lactoperoxidase system
Marsupialization in bitches is done usually to treat- Pyometra
Dose of Ivermectin is – 200 micrograms/Kg body weight
The breed of cattle which has strong predisposition for Eye Cancer- Hereford
Male dog urinates like bitch in – Cystitis
Knott test is done to detect Dirofilariosis in dogs

Half life of IgG is – 20-21 days
Benign tumor of gingiva is called – Epulis
The drug used to contract gall bladder (cholecystokinetic)- Ceruletide
The type of paralysis produced by the drug piperazine on worms is – flaccid
Cart wheel shape chromatin is seen – Plasma cells
The most abundant buffer system in plasma- bicarbonate buffer
The  smallest animal cell has a diameter of – 2 microns
The Fc fragment of Ig’s can be recovered by digestion with the enzyme- Papain
Most common respiratory pathogen in canines – Bordetella bronchiseptica (kennel cough)
Rabbit ileal loop assay is commonly done for the detection of – ET E.coli
Haemo-lymphnodes are commonly seen in – Ruminants
Clonal selection theory of antibody production was proposed by- Burnet
Biphasic fever in dogs is indicative of – Canine distemper
Ramstedt’s surgical procedure is performed to correct- Pyloric stenosis
The immediate precursor of thrombocytes are- Megakaryocytes
Rouleaux formation in blood smear is a common finding in – Felines
Substance required for platelet aggregation is – Thromboxane
The interleukin commonly referred as chemokine is – IL-8
Rectal pinch test is done for the diagnosis of – Johne’s disease
Surgical cat gut is often sterilized by- Isopropyl alcohol or ethylene oxide
Giant kidney worm of Dogs is – Dioctophyme renale
The sedimentation coefficient of IgG is 7S and IgM is 19S
Principal metabolic pathway in RBC is- Glycolysis
Tyzzer’s disease in foals and lab animals is caused by – Bacillus piliformis
Avian spirochetosis is caused by – Borrelia anserina
Colopexy is used to treat- Recurrent rectal prolapse
Mouse ascites method is used to production of – Monoclonal antibodies
The dog breed having genetic predisposition to cardiac hypertropy- Grey hound
Suture technique used for uterine stump closure- Parker kerr method
In humans MHC is referred to as HLA complex whereas in mice it is H-2 complex
“Paple” shaped abdomen is diagnositic of – Vagus Indigestion
Tenesmus followed by bloody dysentery in calves is characteristic of – Eimeria zuernii
The coccidial organism commonly found in felines and canines – Isospora (Eimeria absent)
“Slime balls” ie., cercarial aggregation  seen in- Dicrocoelium infection.
“Grunt” on applying pressure on xiphoid region in cattle is indicative of- TRP
Salmon poisoning in dogs caused by -Neorickettsia helmintheca
Antibody having least half life is – IgE
Genetically mutant mice lacking NK cells is called- Biege (Athymic mice- ‘Nude’)
Salivary cyst found in sublingual duct is- Ranula
Membrane bound IgM is a – Monomer
Class II MHC restricted cells are- T helper cells
Lyme disease is caused by –  Spirochete, Borrelia burgdoeferi,  (IH- Ixodes)
Antidote for warfarin toxicity is – Vitamin K
The drug that intensifies the toxic effects of Warfarin is – Phenyl Butazone
The amino acid which is deficient in cats is – Taurine
Complement activation is predominantly mediated by – IgM
The compound used as gastric sedative in dogs is – Chloretone
The receptor for co-stimulating B7 molecules on APC is- CD28
Enteroplication is the surgical technique to correct- Intussusception
The antibody that can exist as monomer, dimer, trimer and tetramer- IgA.
Insulin like growth factor –I is also called as – Somatomedins
The diuretic with Aldosterone antagonistic action is – Spironolactone
The drug used to experimentally induce diabetes in dogs- Alloxan
Allopurinol is the drug of choice for the treatment of – Gout
In passive HA, chemical used to coat antigens in RBC- Tannic acid or chromium chloride.
Infectious RNA molecule of low molecular weight comes under the category- Viroids
Pink eye is caused by Moraxella bovis and Summer pink eye is caused by IBR virus
‘Dew drop’ colonies and satellite phenomenon is exhibited by- Haemophilus
9R is the vaccine strain of – Salmonella Gallinarum
Glaucoma, a condition of increased intra ocular pressure is treated using- Acetazolamide
Canrenone is the metabolite of – Spironolactone
Kanagawa reaction is shown by – Vibrio parahaemolyticum
SMEDI in pigs is caused by – Parvo Virus
“White Spotted” kidney is a sequelae to – Leptospirosis and E.coli infections
Infarcts in kidney of Swine is characteristic of – Erysipelas
In GI tract, the antigen transport is carried out by specialized cells called- ‘M’ cells
Infectious protein particles causing ‘Scrapie’ in sheep are called- Prions
The penicillin which is effective against pseudomonas infection- Carbenicillin
Burton’s line in gums is indicative of – Lead poisoning
The drug that can replace Ivermectin in sensitive dogs- Milbemycin oxime
Jaagsiekte “ Driving Sickness” in sheeps is caused by Retro virus
Jaagsiekte is Pulmonary adenomatosis and Visna-Maedi (Retro) is Progressive pneumonia
Farmer’s Lung in cattle is caused by – Micropolyspora faeni
The virus having a unique ‘double capsid’- Reovirus
Viral etiology of neoplasms were first reported by- Ellerman and Bang
The group specific antigen of ALV which is commonly used for COFAL test is -p27
Recombinant DNA technology was first developed by- Cohen and Boyer
Ephemeral fever (3 day sickness) is caused by – Rhabdovirus
“Facial Eczema” in cattle is caused by Pithomyces chartarum (fungus with toxin sporidesmin)
“Gall Sickness” is the synonym for- Anaplasmosis
Antigenic variation in avian influenza virus is largely due to- Genetic Shift
MAB technique for producing monoclonal Ig’s was devised by- Kohler and Milstein
Bence Jones proteins (light chains of Ig) are present in urine in -Multiple myeloma
Rose-Waaler test is used for the detection of -Rheumatoid factor (IgM)
The dose of Heparin used as an anticoagulant is- 10-20 IU/ml
The media used to select the myeloma cells in MAB technique is- HAT medium
The site present in an antibody to which an antigen binds is called- Paratope
The vector for Reoviral Blue tongue in sheeps is- Culicoides spp
“Pizzle rot” (Ovine Posthitis) in sheeps is caused by- Corynebacterium renale
Gid, Sturdy, or Staggers is caused by-Coenurus cerebralis ( T. multiceps)
The most commonly used serological test ELISA was developed by- Engvall and Perlman
The gene for virulence in ND virus and AI virus are-Fusion gene and HA gene (respectively)
‘Tigroid heart’ in calves is characteristic of- FMD
Vascularization of Cornea is known as – Pannus
The lesion in eyes of horses due to leptospiral infection – Periodic Ophthalmia
“Blue eye” is the synonym for- Infectious Canine Hepatitis (adenovirus)
“Hot Spot” (pyotraumatic dermatitis) is caused by- Staphylococcus aureus & S. intermedius.
The interleukin often referred to as B cell growth factor is- IL-6
FMD virus belongs to the genus- Aphthovirus
‘Dropped Sole’ in horses is a condition due to- Chronic Laminitis
The etiological agent of Ephemeral fever in cattle is- Rhabdovirus
Feline pan leucopenia is caused by- Parvo virus
Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus of the family- Orthomyxoviridae
The principal source of Interferon β is – Fibroblasts
SAT-1,2 and 3 are types of FMDV originated from- Africa
The interleukin responsible for class switching of IgM to IgG is – IL-4
The animal species that serves as “ mixing vessel” for Avian and Mammalian flu is – Pig
Disinfectant of choice against Anthrax bacilli- Gluteraldehyde (2%)
HVT, the vaccine strain used against MDV (serotype I) belongs to- serotype III
In birds, Avulavirus is the causative agent of – Newcastle disease
The cell surface marker of memory T cells is- CD45RO
In ALV infection, the tumor development is due to activation of oncogene called- c-myc
Disinfectant of choice against FMD virus- Sodium Carbonate (4%)
Staphylorraphy and Uranoplasty are techniques used to correct- Cleft palate
Negri bodies for diagnosis of rabies can be detected using- Seller’s stain
Malignant tumor of mesenchymal cells is referred as – Sarcoma


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